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位置：绪论 千年构建物理山 > 一、 物理学的研究内容、研究方法及其实用性概述

Introduction

I. Research contents, methods, and the practical use of Physics

1 Research contents of Physics

2 Research methods of Physics

3 Practical use of Physics

II. A logical overview of mechanical movement laws

III. Development history of mechanical movement laws

1 Look up at the heaven

2 Bend down to the earth

3 Unite the heaven and the earth

4 Theory instruction

5 Further development

IV. Status and role of Mechanics in Physics and body of knowledge for Mechanics

1 Status and role of Mechanics in Physics

2 Body of knowledge for Mechanics

V. Advices on Physics learning

Chapter 1:Point Mass Kinematics

I Position vector, velocity, acceleration and their relationship

1 Point mass, reference system and coordinate system

2 Position vector, displacement, velocity, acceleration and their relationship

II Coordinate representation of the relationship between position vector, velocity and acceleration

1 Representation in rectangular coordinate system

2 Representation in plane polar coordinate system

3 Representation in intrinsic coordinate system

III Relative motion

1 Transformations of velocity and acceleration between translational and static reference systems

IV Brief summary of Chapter 1

Chapter 2: Point Mass Dynamics in the Inertial Reference System

I Newton's Three Laws

1 Newton's First Law

2 Newton's Second Law

3 Newton's Third Law

II Law of Gravitation

1 Kepler's Three Laws

2 Establishment of the Law of Gravitation

III Common forces in nature and in Mechanics

1 Common forces in nature

2 Common forces in Mechanics

IV Dimensions

1 Dimensions

2 Measurement of time, length and mass

V Brief summary of Chapter 2

Chapter 3: Point Mass Dynamics in the Non-inertial Reference System

I. Principle of Relativity

II. Point Mass Dynamics in the Non-inertial Reference System

1 Inertial Force in Non-inertial Reference System in Accelerated Translational Motion

2 Inertial Force in Non-inertial Reference System Rotating at A Constant Angular Velocity

III. Analysis of Inertia Force Phenomena on the Surface of the Earth

2. Apparent Gravity due to Inertial Centrifugal Force

IV. Essentials of Inertia Force

V Brief summary of Chapter 3

Chapter 4: Momentum Theorem and the Law of Conservation of Momentum

I. Center-of-mass Motion of A Point Mass Group

1 Center of Mass of A Point Mass Group and the Motion Law of the Center of Mass

2 Characteristics and Finding of the Center of Mass

3 Center-of-mass Frame

II. Momentum Theorem and the Law of Conservation of Momentum of A Point Mass Group

1 Momentum Theorem of the Point Mass

2 Momentum Theorem of the Point Mass Group

3 Momentum Theorem of the Center of Mass

4 Conservation of Momentum of the Point Mass Group

5 Total Momentum of Point Mass Group in A Center-of-mass Frame

III. Variable Mass System

1 Kinetic Equation in the Variable Mass System

2 Concrete Examples of the Kinetic Equation in A Variable Mass System

IV Brief summary of Chapter 4

Chapter 5: Work-energy Principle and Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy

I. Kinetic Energy Theorem of the Point Mass System

1 Kinetic Energy Theorem of Point Mass

2 Work and Power of the Force

3 Kinetic Energy Theorem of Point Mass System

II. Analysis on the Work of Internal Forces Based on the Theorem of Kinetic Energy of Point Mass System

1 Characteristics of the Work of A Pair of Internal Forces

2 Conservative Internal Force and Non-conservative Internal Force

3 Potential Energy of Point Mass System

III. Work-energy Principle and Conservation Law of Mechanical Energy of Point Mass System

1 Work-energy Principle of Point Mass System

2 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy of Point Mass System

4 Work-energy Principle of Point Mass System in a Center-of-mass Frame

★5 The Law of Energy Conservation

IV. Collision

1 Features of Collision

2 Process of One-dimensional Collision and Its Classification

3 Law of Collision

★4 Two-dimensional Collision

V Brief Summary of Chapter 5

Chapter 6: Angular Momentum Theorem and Conservation Law of Angular Momentum

I. Angular Momentum Theorem of Point Mass

1 Angular Momentum Theorem of Point Mass

2 Torque of Force

3 Angular Momentum of Point Mass

4 Angular Momentum Conservation of Point Mass

II. Angular Momentum Theorem and Conservation Law of Angular Momentum of Point Mass System

1 Angular Momentum Theorem of Point Mass System

2 Angular Momentum Conservation of Point Mass System

4 Angular Momentum Theorem of Point Mass System in the Center-of-mass Frame

III. Central-force Field Problem

1 Three Cosmic Velocities

★2 Effective Potential Energy and Orbital Property

★3 Transforming Two Objects into One

★IV. Conservation Laws and Symmetry

V Brief Summary of Chapter 6

Chapter 7: Rigid Body

I. Kinematics of Rotation of Rigid Body around A Fixed Axis

1 The Rotational Quantities to Describe the Rotation of Rigid Body around A Fixed Axis

2 The Vector Analysis of the Rotational Quantities

3 The Relationship between Rotational Angular Quantities and Linear Quantities

II. Kinetics of Rotation of Rigid Body around A Fixed Axis

2 Moment of Inertia

3 The Law of Rotation for Rigid Body Rotating around A Fixed Axis

4 Angular Momentum Theorem and the Conservation Law for Rigid Body Rotating around A Fixed Axis

5 Kinetic Energy Theorem of Rigid Body Rotating around A Fixed Axis

III. The Method of Dealing with the Plane Parallel Motion of A Rigid Body

★1 The Force System Acting on A Rigid Body and Its Equivalence

2 The Method of Dealing with the Plane Parallel Motion of A Rigid Body

IV. Dealing with Plane Parallel Motion by Taking Center of Mass as Base Point

1 Expressions of Kinetic Energy and Angular Momentum for Plane Parallel Motion

2 Equations of Translation and Rotation of Rigid Body

3 Examples of Plane Parallel Motion

★V. The Instantaneous Rotation Axis of the Rigid Body in Plane Parallel Motion

1 Instantaneous Rotation Axis of Rigid Body

2 Kinetic Energy Theorem of Rotation around An Instantaneous Axis

3 Law of Rotation around An Instantaneous Axis

VI. Equilibrium of Rigid Body

★VII. Fixed-point Precession of Symmetric Rigid Body

1. Motion of Rigid Body without Influence of External Torque

2. Precession of Rigid Body under the Effect of External Torque

VIII Brief Summary of Chapter 7

Chapter 8: Fluid

I. Fluid Statics

1 Pressure at Any Point in Static Fluid

2 Relationship between Pressures at Different Points in Static Fluid

3 The Buoyancy Law (Archimedes Principle)

4 Pascal's Law

II. Steady Flow of Ideal Fluid

1 Description of Flowing Fluid

2 Any Pressure in Flowing Fluid

3 Continuity Equation

4 Bernoulli Equation

★5 Momentum and Angular Momentum of Fluid

III. Application of Bernoulli equation

1 Examples of Daily Life Phenomena, Such as Lift Force of the Wing and Magnus Effect

2 Orifice Flow Measurement

3 Measurement of Liquid Velocity in Pipe - Venturi Flowmeter

4 Measurement of Liquid Velocity in Non-pipe - Pitot Tube

5 Siphon Phenomenon

★IV. Flow of Viscuous Fluids

V Brief Summary of Chapter 8

Chapter 9: Vibration

I. Simple Harmonic Vibration

1 The Kinetic Equation of Simple Harmonic Vibration and Its Solution

2 The Kinematic Features of Simple Harmonic Vibration

3 The Geometric Representation of Simple Harmonic Vibration

4 Synthesis of the Simple Harmonic Vibration

II. Damped Vibration

III. Forced Vibration

1 Differential Equation and Solutions of the Forced Vibration

2 Resonance Phenomenon of the Forced Vibration

IV Brief Summary of Chapter 9

Chapter 10: Fluctuation

I. Qualitative Description of Mechanical Wave

1 Conditions and Features of Mechanical Wave

2 Geometric Description of Mechanical Wave

3 Classification of Wave

II. Wave Equation of Mechanical Wave

1 Wave Equation of Tensioned String

2 Elastic Wave Equation in Solid Body

III. Kinetic Equation of Mechanical Wave

1 Solution to the Mechanical Wave Equation

2 Classification of the Propagation Forms of Wave

3 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity of Wave

IV. Kinematic Equation of Simple Harmonic Wave

1 Physical Quantities Describing the Features of the Simple Harmonic Wave

2 Phase Transfer Method for the Expression of Simple Harmonic Wave

3 Some Common Expressions of the Plane Simple Harmonic Wave

V. The Transmission, Reflection and Synthesis of Mechanical Wave

1 Energy of the Traveling Wave

2 Wave Diffraction and Huygens Principle

3 Superposition Principle of the Wave

4 Reflection and Transmission of Waves at An Interface

5 Standing Wave

6 Normal Frequency

VI. Doppler Effect

★VII. Introduction to Sound Wave and Super Wave Velocity Motion

VIII Brief Summary of Chapter 10

Chapter 11: Introduction To Special Relativity

I. Contradiction between Classical Spatial-temporal Perspective and the Experiment

1 Classical Spatial-temporal Perspective Contained in Galileo Transformation

2 Michelson-Morley Experiment

II. Two Basic Hypotheses of Special Relativity

III. Lorentz Transformation and Transformation of Velocity and Acceleation

1 Lorentz Transformation

2 Lorentz Transformation and Transformation of Velocity and Acceleration

3 Comparison of Galileo Transformation and Lorentz Transformation

IV. Kinematic Phenomenon in Special Relativity

1 Rlativity of Simultaneity

2 Time Dilation

3 Length Contraction

4 Clock Synchronization

5 Doppler Effect

★V. Fundamental Equation in Dynamics

VI Brief Summary of Chapter 11

★Chapter 12: Introduction to General Relativity & Introduction to Cosmology and Astrophysics

I Two Remaining Issues of Special Relativity

II Theoretical Basis of General Relativity

1 Principle of Equivalence

2 General Covariance & Gravitational Field Equation

III Predicted Phenomena of General Relativity & Their Experimental Confirmations

1 Light Deflection, Star Position Observation & Gravitational Lens

2 Gravitational Time Delay & Gravitational Redshift

3 Spatial-temporal Curvature & Mercury’s Orbital Precession

4 Light Speed Reduction and Radar Echo Delay in Gravitational Field

5 Black Hole

6 Graviton & Gravitational Wave

7 GPS Clock Correction

IV The Structure and the Age of Matter in the Universe

V The Unity and Wholeness of the Universe-The Principle of Cosmology

VI Universe Expansion-Hubble's Law and Olbers’ Paradox

VII Origin of the Universe-The Big Bang Model

VIII Dark Matter and Dark Energy

VIIII Evolution of Stars-White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

1 Evolution of Stars-White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

2 Observational Classification of the Luminous Stars-Constellations

Basic Vector Operations

0.1一、物理学的研究内容、研究方法及其实用性概述

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